Robot Systems: Hardware Overview

Single Board Computers

Raspberry Pi 4

  • 1.5 Ghz Quad Core ARM Cortex-72 processor, 1–8 GB RAM
  • Products Page

Jetson Nano

  • 1,43 GhZ Quad Core ARM A57, 4 GB RAM
  • 128 Core Maxwell GPU
  • Product Page

BeagleBoard X15


Arduino UNO

  • ATmga328P MCU, 2KB RAM
  • Family of microcontrollers with manifold configuration
  • Wikipedia Page

Arduino Nano

  • ATmga328P MCU
  • Same features as the Arduino Nano, but compatible with breadboards and smaller in design
  • Wikipedia Page

Feather boards


  • ATmga328P MCU
  • Arduino compatible boards, that feature a Micro-USB connection and can seamlessly integrate with a number of other boards from the Grove module family
  • Product Page


  • OSD3358 1GHz ARM, 512MB RAM
  • USB and MicroSD connectors
  • Product Page

NodeMCU v2

  • ATmga328P MCU, 128KB RAM
  • Arduino Compatible, built-in Wifi,
  • IoT plattform
  • Wikipedia Page

Argon Wifi Development Board

  • ARM Cortex-M4F 32-bi, 4 MB RAM
  • MicroUSB Connection
  • Product Page

Espressif Systems ESP8266

Espressif Systems ESP32

  • Tensilica Xtensa LX6 microprocessor, 520 KB RAM
  • Built-In WiFi, SD Card Reader
  • Successor to the ESP8266
  • Wikipedia Page

ST Microelectronics STM32

  • ARM Cortex-M4F / M7F
  • Family of Microcontrollers based on ARM
  • Provided as Arduino or Discovery Boards (for debugging purposes)
  • Wikipedia Page

Teensy 3.6

  • ARM Cortex M4 processor, 256KB RAM
  • Arduino compatible
  • USB and MicroSD connectors
  • Product Page

MSP430 Launchpad

Netduino N3 Wi-Fi

  • ARM Cortex M4 processor, 256KB RAM
  • Built-In WiFi, SD Card Reader
  • Wikipedia Page


2 Wheels + Caster

4 Wheels


Continuous Belt



Synchronous AC Motor

  • Stator produces a constant magnetic field that powers the rotor
  • Once accelerated, the motor produces a constant torque

Asynchronous AC / Induction

  • The stator produces a magnetic field which powers the rotor
  • Magnetic polarization in the stator change the motors torque

Brushed DC motor

  • Inside the stator, brushes apply electric current to a rotating set of magnets that in turn power the rotor
  • Were the first commercially applied electric motor
  • Types: Grouped by their RPM

Brushed DC Geared Motors

  • Improvement of the DC motor that comes with a set of intertwined gears to provide better torque and reduced speed
  • Types: Grouped by RPM

Brushless DC motor / Synchronous DC motor

  • Provide an alternating magnetic field inside the stator that power the rotor
  • Types

Brushless DC stepper motor

  • Provide an alternating magnetic field inside the stator that power the rotor, and divides the rotation into discrete steps
  • Types: Unipolar, Bipolar

Brushless DC Servo Motors

  • A special Brushless Motor that provides fine grained control of the rotor via an analogous or digital signal
  • Types: Nano, Micro, Slim Wing etc.



  • Photo resistor converts light intensity to electric resistance
  • Photovoltaic Cells convert solar radiation into electric current


  • Infra Red Transceivers emit infra-red light and measure the light reflection
  • Ultrasonic sensors emit sound and measure the echo impulse
  • Laser emit lasers and measure the lasers reflection


  • Microphone


  • Camera

Movements and Acceleration

  • Provided via motors and their controllers
  • Gyroscope


  • Temperature
  • Humidity
  • Smoke

Complete Kits




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